I’ve been very vocal in my advocacy for meritocratic values. And for meritocracy to function correctly, we need to ensure that everyone is participating on as level a playing field as possible. This is why I often criticize the most extreme examples of affirmative action while maintaining that we do need affirmative action in some form. On the one hand, admitting underrepresented students who do not have the same qualifications as their peers to elite institutions is a profound mistake. It doesn’t help the underrepresented students, it damages the integrity of the institution, and it can have far-reaching negative effects in society.